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Puntland Democratization: Process, Challenges and Ways Forward

There are opportunities and challenges associated with the Puntland democratization process, and important lessons that can be learnt from this exercise. Some of the key lessons include the inclusion of internally displaced people (IDPs) in the registration drive, the positive role of traditional elders (even when transitioning to full democracy and direct elections), the importance of initiating registration of persons at the Federal Member States level, and the encouraging experience of bottom-up registration of voters in Somalia.

This report proposes recommendations to different actors that, if implemented and considered by the stakeholders in the Puntland democratization process, could go a long way in enhancing and improving the transparency and quality of Puntland’s Local Government’s Elections and the democratization process as a whole. The recommendations include: that the Puntland government maintains its political commitment, which is crucial for the accomplishment of universal suffrage; that TPEC should keep up the momentum and avoid any conflict of interest going forward; that political associations must include women and youth in their organizational structures, and that they should offer alternative leadership and constructive criticism in theircampaigning and selling of their political agenda. Puntland civil society is encouraged to speed up and launch a coordinated awareness exercise in order to bridge the information gap. On the other hand, the study recommends other Federal Member States of Somalia to take the democratization process of Puntland as a benchmark and learn best practices from each other. The international partners should continue the goodwill and technical and financial support they have offered to Puntland’s democratization process.

Download the full report here

Waxaa jira fursado iyo caqabado la xiriira geeddi-socodka dimuqraadiyeynta Puntland, iyo casharro muhiim ah oo laga baran karo howlaha doorashooyinka dowladaha hoose. Casharrada muhiimka ah waxaa kamid ah in dadka gudaha ku barakacay lagu daro diiwaangelinta, doorka wanaagsan ee odayaasha dhaqanka, muhiimadda ay leedahay in laga billaabo diiwaangelinta dadka heerka Dowladaha xubnaha ka ah Dowladda Federaalka, iyo waayo-aragnimada dhiirri-gelinta leh ee diiwaan-gelinta cod-bixiyeyaasha Soomaaliya.

Warbixintani waxay usoo jeedinaysaa talooyin daneeyeyaasha kala duwan, kuwaasoo haddii ay tixgeliyaan, wax weyn ka tari karta sare-u-qaadista iyo hagaajinta daahfurnaanta iyo tayada Doorashooyinka Dowladaha Hoose ee Puntland iyo geedi-socodka dimuqraadiyadda guud ahaan. Talooyinka waxaa kamid ah: in dowladda Puntland ay sii joogteyso ka go’naanshaheeda siyaasadeed, taasoo muhiim u ah dhammaystirka doorashada; in TPEC ay sii waddo dardar- gelinta howlaha doorashada oo ay ka fogaato wax kasta oo carqaladeyn kara shaqada ama muujin kara eex iyo dano gaar ah; in ururrada siyaasadeed ay muhiim tahay inay ku daraan haweenka iyo dhalinyarada qaab-dhismeedkooda urur, iyo inay soo bandhigaan hoggaamin iyo dhaliil wax dhiseysa marka ay ololeynayaan ama iibinayaan ajendayaashooda siyaasadeed. Bulshada rayidka ah ee Puntland waxaa lagu dhiirrigelinayaa in ay dardar geliyaan oo ay billaabaan wacyi-gelin isku-dhafan si loo yareeyo baahida weyn ee loo qabo macluumaadka doorashada. Dhinaca kale, daraasaddu waxay ku talinaysaa Dowladaha kale ee xubnaha ka ah Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya inay halbeeg ka dhigtaan hannaanka dimuqraadiyadda Puntland oo ay ka qaataan tijaabooyinka ugu wanaagsan ee lagu guuleystay. Saaxiibada caalamku iyaguna waa inay sii wadaan taageerada farsamo iyo maaliyadeed ee ay ku taageeraan geeddi-socodka dimuqraadiyadda Puntland.

Soo rogo warbixinta oo dhameystiran

Fiscal Federalism in Somalia: Constitutional Ambiguity, Political Economy and Options for a Workable Arrangement

Somalia adopted a federal system in 2004 when the Transitional Federal Charter was adopted in Kenya. Since then, it has evolved into a provisional constitution, which was temporarily approved by the over 800-member constitutional assembly in Mogadishu in 2012. The devolution of power has exposed Somalia to recurrent disputes between the FGS and its constituent units over power and resource distribution. At the heart of a bitter and draining schism and bone of contention between the levels of government is fiscal federalism. This results from ambiguity inherent in the Somalia Provisional Constitution over this and other crucial matters. As this problem grows, this study sheds light on the state of fiscal federalism in Somalia, and the challenges that stand in the way of a workable agreement. However, it also proposes practical models and recommendations in resolving the existing disputes over fiscal federalism.

Download the full report here