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Fiscal Federalism in Somalia: Constitutional Ambiguity, Political Economy and Options for a Workable Arrangement

Somalia adopted a federal system in 2004 when the Transitional Federal Charter was adopted in Kenya. Since then, it has evolved into a provisional constitution, which was temporarily approved by the over 800-member constitutional assembly in Mogadishu in 2012. The devolution of power has exposed Somalia to recurrent disputes between the FGS and its constituent units over power and resource distribution. At the heart of a bitter and draining schism and bone of contention between the levels of government is fiscal federalism. This results from ambiguity inherent in the Somalia Provisional Constitution over this and other crucial matters. As this problem grows, this study sheds light on the state of fiscal federalism in Somalia, and the challenges that stand in the way of a workable agreement. However, it also proposes practical models and recommendations in resolving the existing disputes over fiscal federalism.

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Dib-u-heshiisiinta Galmudug: Geeddi-socodka, Caqabadaha iyo Fursadah‪a‬ (SPA Governance Podcast)

Soomaaliya waxay soo martay xasillooni darro weyn tan iyo markii la riday dowladdii milateriga ahayd 1991. Isku dhacyada rabshadaha wata ee u dhexeeya qabaa’illada iska soo horjeeda ayaa caadi ka ahaa dalka oo dhan, kuwaasoo ka dhashay inta badan biyo yari iyo kheyraadka daaqa. Colaadaha noocan oo kale ah waxay keeneen isku dhacyo muddo dheer socdey oo ay adkaatay in la xalliyo. Mid kamid ah tusaalaha ugu muhiimsan waa maamulka Galmudug, oo ay sameysteen gobollada Galgaduud iyo Mudug, iyadoo taariikh ahaan ahaayeen labadan gobol goobo ay ka jiraan loollan siyaasadeed oo qaraar iyo dagaallo isdaba joog ah, iyadoo kooxo badan ay sheeganayeen inay ka taliyaan qeybo kala duwan oo labadan gobol katirsan. Muddadii 2015 ilaa 2019 Galmudug labo ayay u kala jabtay, maamullo kala gaar ahna waxaa laga kala dhisay dhumasareb iyo Cadaado. Sikastaba ha noqotee, kadib isku dayo badan oo dib-u-heshiisiin oo ay ku guuldareysteen dhinacyo kala duwan, geeddi-socodkii ugu dambeeyay ee la doonayay in lagusoo dabaalo nabad iyo in la dhiso dowlad xasilan ayaa waxaa laga gaaray guul.

Podcast-gan waxa ay Maxamed Shariif, Mahad Waasuge, Farxaan Isaaq Yuusuf ku falanqeynayaan  natiijooyinka kasoo baxay daraasad cilmiyaysan oo falanqeyneysa geeddi-socodka dib-u-heshiisiinta siyaasadeed iyo bulsho ee degaannada Galmudug.

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Somalia’s Electoral Conundrum: An Alternative to the Mogadishu Model

This commentary explains the current impasse around elections in Somalia and proposes a potential alternative to the indirect elections of the September 17 ‘Mogadishu Model’ (which now appears unworkable). This alternative involves the extension of the Somali Parliament’s mandate for 2 years and the election of new speakers. These speakers would organize a parliamentary election of a President for a 2-year mandate. The president would then put together an inclusive government of national unity. This government would be tasked with organizing direct elections in Somalia after 2 years, in which the president elected by the Parliament would not be able to stand as a candidate. This is an unusual and innovative model which – inevitably – has its own limitations. Nevertheless, this commentary argues that the current electoral stalemate and extraordinary political circumstances require the consideration of such options. Read more

Youth inclusion and participation in Somali politics: challenges and opportunities

Somalia is a youthful country with a high fertility rate. Approximately 70% of the population is under the age of 30, and more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. With this huge youth population, young people at working age suffer from the impacts of a high unemployment rate, which is estimated to stand at 60%; one of the highest in the world. Read more

What Lessons can be Learned from Somalia’s 2016 Indirect Elections?

Somalia is heading into another indirect election in 2020-21. It is a familiar process and one that was undertaken almost four years ago. Many lessons can be learned from the 2016 indirect electoral implementation process. In 2016, candidates for the House of the People of Somali Federal Parliament covered some important logistics, travel and accommodation costs for the electoral delegates (which in part is believed to have helped them get elected); there was no scheduled time for meetings between candidates and the voting delegates; and the date and time for voting of each seat of the House of the People was unilaterally decided by the state election implementation teams. In 2016, the proportion of women in parliament was increased from 14% to 24%, which was a significant increase. This was one of the positives of the 2016 indirect elections and similar efforts could be made this time around to raise this to the 30% female quota target. This brief analyses the implementation process of the 2016 indirect elections and concludes with policy considerations. These include: prohibiting  candidates to handpick electoral delegates; providing the necessary logistical and accommodation support to the delegates on time; arranging a formal campaign  schedule for voters and candidates; publishing the election schedule for each seat of the House of the People in advance; allowing the media and election observers to be present during the voting, and monitoring and reporting irregularities and fraudulent practices throughout the election process.

Download the full brief here

Soomaaliya waxa ay galeysaa doorasho dadban mar labaad sanadka 2020-21. Waa hannaan la yaqaanno oo la qabtay ku dhowaad afar sano kahor. Casharro badan ayaa laga baran karaa geeddi-socodkii hirgelinta doorashooyinkii dadbanaa ee 2016. Sanadkii 2016, qaar kamid ah musharraxiinta Golaha Shacabka ee Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya ayaa bixiyey kharashaadka saadka sida safarka iyo hoyga loogu talagalay ergooyinka doorashada (taasoo qeyb ahaan la rumeysan yahay inay ka caawisay doorashadooda); ma jirin wakhti loo qorsheeyey kulamada musharraxiinta iyo ergooyinka; taariikhda iyo wakhtiga loo codeynayo kursi kasta oo kamid ah Golaha Shacabka waxaa go’aamiyay hal dhinac oo ah kooxaha fulinaya doorashooyinka. Sanadkii 2016, qoondada haweenka ee baarlamaanka ayaa oo markii hore ahaa 14% ayaa laga dhigay 24%, taasoo ahayd koror aad u weyn. Tani waxa ay ahayd mid kamid ah waxyaabihii wanaagsanaa ee kasoo baxay doorashadii dadbanayd ee 2016; dadaallada noocan oo kale ah ayaa sidoo kale la samayn karaa markan si sare loogu qaado saamiga lana gaarsiiyo hiigsiga qoondada haweenka ee ah 30%. Faalladan kooban waxaa uu falanqeynayaa hannaankii hirgelinta doorashooyinkii dadbanaa ee 2016, waxaana uu soo jeedinayaa talooyin tixgelin mudan oo ay kamid yihiin: ka mamnuucidda musharixiinta in ay gacan ku yeeshaan xulista ergooyinka doorashada; in wakhtigeeda lagu bixiyo saadka loo baahan yahay iyo hoyga ergada; diyaarinta jadwalka ololaha rasmiga ah ee cod-bixiyeyaasha iyo musharraxiinta; daabacaadda jadwalka doorashada ee kursi kasta xilli hore; u oggolaanshaha warbaahinta iyo kormeerayaasha doorashada in ay goobjoog ka ahaadaan xilliga cod-bixinta, iyo la socoshada iyo soo gudbinta khaladaadka inta lagu guda jiro hannaanka doorashada.

Soo rogo warbixinta oo dhameystiran

Evaluating the Governance of the Covid-19 Response in Somalia: A Call for Inclusive and Transparent Decision-making

The Covid-19 pandemic spread across Somalia and again exposed the fragility of public institutions. There are limited laboratories that can be used to test the Covid-19 samples. The number of samples tested was minimal in number, and the positive, recovered, and death numbers reported likely do not reflect the actual number of people who contracted the virus and the actual deaths from the coronavirus. The national Covid-19 response was understandably minimal, and was/is only limited to Mogadishu, the seats of regional states, and few other major towns. Although some governance measures were employed by the federal government and federal member states, these measures were poorly enforced due to the weak enforcement capacity of public institutions. There have been some financial and in-kind support to Covid-19 response, but transparency and accountability mechanisms relating to how these resources have been used are not clear. The Covid-19 pandemic became one among many pressing priorities for the recovering public sector institutions in Somalia, and one key lesson from the pandemic relates to the need for investment in both governing institutions and the delivery of public services. The pandemic may come to an end, but it could inspire leaders to invest more in increasing access to and quality of public services in Somalia.

Download the full report here

Cudurka safmareenka ee Covid-19 wuxuu ku faafay Soomaaliya oo dhan wuxuuna mar kale kashifay jilicsanaanta hay’adaha dowliga ah. Waxaa jira shaybaarro yar oo loo isticmaali karo in lagu baaro cudurka Covid-19. Tirada dadka la baaray ayaa tiro ahaan aad u yaraa, tirada laga helay, iyo tirada dhimashada ee la soo sheegay waxay u egtahay inaysan ka tarjumaynin tirada dhabta ah ee dadka uu ku dhacay fayraska iyo dhimashada dhabta ah ee uu sababay coronavirus. Guddiga heer Qaran ee Covid-19 tamartiisu waxay ahayd mid aad u yar,  kaliyana ku eg Muqdisho, caasimadaha dowlad-goboleedyada iyo magaalooyin kale oo waaweyn. Inkastoo dhowr tallaabo oo maamul ay ku dhawaaqeen dowladda dhexe iyo dowladaha xubnaha ka ah federaalka, haddana tallaabooyinkan si liidata ayaa loo dhaqan geliyey sababtoo ah awoodda fulinta ee hay’adaha dowladda ayaa daciif ah. Waxaa jiray xoogaa taageero maaliyadeed iyo mid agab ah oo loogu tala galay la tacalida xaladda Covid-19, balse daahfurnaan badan ma jirin qaabka islaxisaabtankana ma ahayn mid cadaynaya sida wax loo isticmaalay. COVID-19  wuxuu noqday mid kamid ah arrimaha culus ee mudnaanta ay siiyeen hay’adaha dowliga ah ee Soomaaliya. Hal cashar oo muhiim ah oo laga bartay musiibada ayaa la xiriirta baahida loo qabo dhisidda hay’adaha dowliga ah iyo gaarsiinta adeegyada bulshada. Aafada waa lasoo afjari karaa, laakiin waxay ku dhiirigelin kartaa hoggaamiyeyaasha inay maalgeliyaan kordhinta helitaanka iyo tayada adeegyada bulshada ee Soomaaliya.

Soo rogo warbixinta oo dhameystiran

 

The ‘Electoral Constituency Caucuses’: Analysis of the new electoral model agreed in Dhusamareb

On Thursday, 20 August 2020, the president of Somalia, leaders of 3 federal member states (Galmudug, South West, and Hirshabelle), and the governor of Benadir region agreed and signed a new election model dubbed the Electoral Constituency Caucuses’. The agreement was reached after a series of talks held in Dhusamareb, the capital city of Galmudug. At the conclusion of the previous Dhusamareb (2) conference, a joint technical committee from the federal government and federal member states was proposed with the mandate to explore electoral models and present options to the leaders of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and Federal Member States (FMS) in a third Dhusamareb meeting, which was slated for 15th August. After meetings in Mogadishu and Dhusamareb, the technical committee proposed 3 models, one of which the leaders had to settle on. Read more

Direct election or ‘enhanced indirect’ election for Somalia? Analysis of the relevant regulations

On 7th June, the joint 17-member parliamentary committee tasked with the preparation of election regulations – which requires only parliamentary approval – submitted two draft regulations to the speakers of the two chambers of parliament for discussion. The first regulation, which consists of 5 chapters and 9 articles, defines the seat allocation, women’s quota, and representation of the Benadir region in the Upper House. The second regulation, which consists of 12 articles, defines the (s)election process of representatives for  Somaliland (or northern regions). Read more

Doorasho toos ah mise doorashadii dadbaneyd oo la hormariyey? Falanqeyn ku saabsan xeerarka doorashada

7-dii bishii Juun, guddiga baarlamaanka ee ka koobnaa 17-ka xubnood loona xilsaray diyaarinta xeerarka sharciga doorashooyinka waxa uu labo xeer u gudbiyey guddoonka labada aqal ee baarlamaanka si looga doodo loona ansixiyo. Xeerka koowaad oo ka kooban 5 cutub iyo 9 qodob waxa uu qeexayaa deegaan-doorashada kuraasta, qoondada dumarka, iyo metelaadda gobolka Benaadir. Xeerka labaad oo ka kooban 12 qodob waxa uu qeexayaa hannaanka doorasho ee xildhibaannada Soomaaliland (ama gobollada waqooyi). Read more

Inclusion, Accountability, and Protection: Analysis on the 2019 Flood Response in Hiiraan

The findings of the radio discussions reveal that there were a number of things that went wrong in the 2019 flood response. First, there was no reliable data on the number of people displaced by the flooding, and where the locations from and to which they were displaced. This led to the irregular distribution of emergency relief. Second, some local committees and individuals responsible for the distribution of the majority of the emergency relief that people experienced used clan criteria for the selection of beneficiaries, which excluded important segments of the society such as the IDPs, people with disabilities, and women. Third, there was disorganization among the multiple actors who were distributing aid. As a result, some families and individuals received food and cash several times while others did not receive any relief. Fourth, there was a lack of awareness among both local people and volunteer responders of the physical risks presented by the flooded terrain. As a result, some people died in the water. Finally, there were no institutions or mechanisms formed before the flooding to handle the response. This led to disorganized multiple actors distributing aid based on the criteria they set themselves or directed by the groups that sent the assistance.

Download the full report here