Fiscal Federalism in Somalia: Constitutional Ambiguity, Political Economy and Options for a Workable Arrangement

Somalia adopted a federal system in 2004 when the Transitional Federal Charter was adopted in Kenya. Since then, it has evolved into a provisional constitution, which was temporarily approved by the over 800-member constitutional assembly in Mogadishu in 2012. The devolution of power has exposed Somalia to recurrent disputes between the FGS and its constituent units over power and resource distribution. At the heart of a bitter and draining schism and bone of contention between the levels of government is fiscal federalism. This results from ambiguity inherent in the Somalia Provisional Constitution over this and other crucial matters. As this problem grows, this study sheds light on the state of fiscal federalism in Somalia, and the challenges that stand in the way of a workable agreement. However, it also proposes practical models and recommendations in resolving the existing disputes over fiscal federalism.

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DOMESTIC ELECTION OBSERVATION

After the disagreements over the delayed elections were settled, Somalia is to hold indirect parliamentary and presidential elections. The first phase of elections, Upper House elections, is scheduled to take place in late July 2021 while the House of the People and presidential elections will follow respectively.

Consequently, to watch, observe and report on the transparency, probity and integrity of the electoral processes, Creative Associates International through Bringing Unity, Integrity, and Legitimacy to Democracy (BUILD) Program, initiated and advertised National Election Observation Missions bid by civil society organizations in the five Federal Member States and Benadir region.

SPA, reckoning on its extensive writing on Somalia elections, applied for the bid and won it later. As part of its performance obligations, SPA recruits ten (10) qualified observers to be trained and engage in the election observation in the Benadir region during the election phases.

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Personal Reflection on My Internship at SPA

My three-month internship with the Somali Public Agenda (SPA) has come to an end. The internship was a great opportunity for me to acquire various skills and experiences. I am grateful for this opportunity at SPA. A few of the things that I learned while working with the SPA were discipline, respect and time management. Read more

From Agreement to Implementation: The Operationalization of Somalia’s Indirect Election Agreement

On May 27, members of the National Consultative Council (NCC) signed an election agreement in Mogadishu. The agreement, which consists of eight points and a roadmap for the post-election government, addresses the core outstanding issues of the indirect elections. The Prime Minister took the lead of the electoral process after the House of the People rescinded early last month a two- year extension it announced on 12 April and the President handed over the election management and security to him. The agreement includes a way forward for the election implementation teams, the election of Somaliland seats, the management of elections in Gedo, election security, women’s quota, and an election timeline. This brief examines the agreed framework and its limitations. It also analyses the implementation challenges of the agreed indirect election such as budget, security, the composition of electoral delegates, and logistical challenges. It also puts forward a number of recommendations that, if implemented, could enhance the transparency and outcome of Somalia’s approaching indirect elections.

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Who owns data in Somalia? Ending the country’s privatised knowledge economy

Over the past decades, donors, aid agencies, consultants and enumerators have conducted increasing amounts of aid-related research in the form of monitoring, assessments and surveys in Somalia. The rise of third-party monitoring (TPMs), new technologies and the arrival of global consultancy firms have not only led to an internationalised and professionalised market for aid information but also introduced new power dynamics in the production of aid knowledge. The way in which aid data in Somalia/Somaliland is produced reflects prevailing stereotypes about the supposedly superior value of ‘Western’ expertise over local knowledge. This brief raises important questions about the production and ownership of aid- related knowledge in the Somali territories where, due to weak state institutions, data collection is unregulated, and often de facto privatised. Moreover, the insufficient uptake of aid information by aid agencies, the governments and the public gives pause for thought. As Somali government institutions are strengthening, there is an urgent need to localise knowledge production in Somalia and to make aid information and data available to the public. There is also a need to strengthen data protection and research ethics and to rethink some of the extractive and negative impacts of the current aid information business.

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Doorashada Soomaaliya: Ka laabashada muddo kordhinta, kaalinta raysal wasaaraha, iyo shirka la filayo in uu qabsoomo (SPA Governance Podcast)

1 dii May ee sanadkan Golaha Shacabka ee Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya ayaa dib uga laabtay muddo kordhintii labada sano ahayd ee uu horey u sameeyay 12-kii April kadib markii uu madaxweynaha u jeediyey khudbad uu kaga codsanayo in dib loogu laabto heshiiskii 17-ka September ee doorashada dadban.

Isbuucii ka horreeyay dib uga laabashada golaha shacabka ee muddo kordhinta, Muqdisho waxaa ka dhacay dagaallo u dhexeeyay ciidamo ka wada tirsan dowladda kaasoo ka dhashay muddo kordhinta. Kumannaan qof ayaana ku barakacay xiisaddaas ka dhalatay muddo kordhinta.

Masuuliyadda hoggaaminta arrimaha doorashada iyo sidoo kale amniga doorashada waxaa lagu wareejiyey Raysal Wasaare Maxamed Xuseen Rooble. Raysal wasaaraha ayaa ku guuleystay in ciidamadii ka hor yimid muddo kordhinta ay dib ugu laabtaan xarumahoodii. Waxa uu sidoo kale iclaamiyey in 20-ka bisha May uu dhici doono kulan u dhexeeya madaxda dowladda federaalka, dowlad goboleedyada iyo gobolka Benadir oo looga hadlayo arrimaha lagu muransan yahay ee doorashada.

Podcast-gan, Cabdiraxmaan Caynte iyo  Maxamed Keynaan oo marti ku ahaa SPA Governance Podcast ayaa Mahad Waasuge la falanqeynaya wajiga cusub ee doorashada Soomaaliya, kaalinta raysal wasaaraha, natiijada la filayo in ay kasoo baxdo shirka la filayo in uu bilowdo 20-ka May,  casharrada laga baran karo doorashadii 2016 iyo arrimo kale oo la xiriira doorashada.

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Jahwareerka Doorashada Soomaaliya: Hannaan Doorasho ee Beddeli Kara Heshiiskii 17-kii Sebteembar

Faalladani waxa ay sharraxeysaa xaaladda cakiran ee doorashooyinka Soomaaliya ee xilligan, waxaa ayna soo jeedineysaa hannaan beddel u noqon kara heshiiskii 17-ka Sebteembar (kaasoo hadda u muuqda mid aan shaqeyn karin). Hanaankan ayaa la xiriira muddo kordhin 2 sano ah oo loo sameeynaayo baarlamaanka Soomaaliya iyadoo la dooranaayo guddoomiyeyaal cusub. Hoggaanka cusub ee baarlamaanka ayaa waxa ay qabanqaabin doonaan doorashada Madaxweyne oo ay muddo xileedkiisu 2 sano noqoneyso. Madaxweynaha la dooranaayo waxaa uu dhisayaa dowlad loo dhan yahay. Dowladdan waxaa loo xilsaarayaa in ay abaabusho doorasho toos ah oo ka dhacda Soomaaliya 2 sano kadib, taasoo madaxweynaha ay doorteen Baarlamaanku uusan awood u yeelan doonin in uu noqdo musharrax. Kani waa hab cusub oo yeelan kara gaabis. Sikastaba ha ahaatee, faaladdaan ayaa ku doodeysa in ismariwaaga doorashooyinka ee hadda jira iyo duruufaha siyaasadeed ee aan caadiga ahayn ay u baahan yihiin tixgelinta xulashooyinka noocaan oo kale ah. Read more