April 16, 2023
Decentralizing taxation and public services to local governments in Somalia: Findings from Puntland, Galmudug, and Benadir
Somalia adopted a federal arrangement in 2012 following years of devasting civil war and a series of weak transitional administrations. This arrangement is not yet complete. However, its adoption was in response to failed experiments in centralization during the military regime (1969-1991) where all powers were concentrated in the capital, Mogadishu. As a result, Somalis had to travel hundreds of kilometers to the capital to get services that they should have been able to receive from their immediate local authorities. Thus, the essence of the federal arrangement was to devolve power to local-level administrations in order to bring services closer to where most people live, and overcome the problematic legacies of centralized rule. Federalization of the country so far has mostly entailed the creation and strengthening of state-level institutions rather than local government. Federal Member States (FMSs) that were formed as a result of the federalization model have consolidated all powers in their respective state capitals. The first FMS-formed local government was established in Puntland in 2009. Other states such as Galmudug formed local governments as late as 2020.
This study takes stock of fiscal and service delivery decentralization in Puntland, Galmudug, and the Benadir Regional Administration. The study was undertaken in nine districts (three in each) of the three case study contexts to stimulate and inform serious discussions around the paramount importance of devolving fiscal and service delivery to local government in pursuit of Somalia’s federalized state-building efforts.
Soomaaliya waxay nidaamka federaalka ah si rasmi ah u qaadatay sanadkii 2012 kadib sanado badan oo ay jireen dagaallo sokeeye oo burbur sababay iyo maamullo kumeelgaar ah. Nidaamkan weli ma dhamaystirna. Sikastaba ha ahaatee, hirgelintiisa waxay jawaab u ahayd tijaabooyinkii lagu guul-darreystay ee lagu uruuriyey awoodihii oo dhan dowladda dhexe xilligii dowladdii milateriga (1969-1991) oo dhammaan awoodaha ku uruurisay caasimadda Muqdisho. Taasi waxay keentay in Soomaalidu ay boqollaal kiiloomitir u safraan caasimadda si ay u helaan adeegyo ay ahayd in ay ka helaan dowladaha hoose. Haddaba, nuxurka nidaamka federaalku waxa uu ahaa in awoodda loo daadejiyo maamullada heer deegaan si adeegyada loogu dhaweeyo halkaasoo ay dadka intiisa badan ku nool yihiin, loogana gudbo dhibaatooyinka saameynta leh ee uu lahaa xukunkii dhexe. Federaaleynta dalka waxa ay inta badan ku koobnaatay dhisidda iyo xoojinta hay’adaha heer dowlad-goboleed halkii ay ahaan lahayd xoojinta dowladaha hoose. Dowlad-goboleedyada la dhisay ayaa awoodaha oo dhan isugu geeyay caasimadaha dowlad goboleedyada. Golihii deegaan ee ugu horreeyay ee Dowlad-goboleed laga sameeyo waxaa laga dhisay Puntland sanadkii 2009. Dowlad-goboleedyada kale sida Galmudug waxay billaabeen dhismaha goleyaasha deegaanka sanadkii 2020.
Daraasaddan waxay qiimeyn ku sameyneysaa daadejinta maaliyadda iyo bixinta adeegyada ee Puntland, Galmudug, iyo Maamulka Gobolka Banaadir. Daraasadda waxaa laga sameeyey sagaal degmo oo katirsan ee saddexdan maamul si xog iyo macluumaad loogu biiriyo doodaha ku saabsan muhiimadda ay leedahay in maaliyadda iyo adeeg bixinta loo daadejiyo dowladaha hoose si loo hirgeliyo dadaallada federaaleynta Soomaaliya.